How bad is the problem? The EPA estimates that the cost of upgrading and replacing America's dilapidated water infrastructure will be more than $1 trillion. At current spending rates, it would take us 700 years to replace aging water assets.

It gets worse. Aqua America (WTR, news), a utility that operates between Texas and Maine, reports that it operates with some 75-year-old pipes. York Water (YORW, news) still uses some cast iron pipes from 1840. In Boston, they've recently found wooden pipes still connecting water mains to historic residences. And in New York City, many water mains are nearly 100 years old.

It's not just an American problem. London reportedly loses 50% of treated drinking water to leaks in old pipes.

As for piping water to newly expanding cities, finding adequate supplies is a big issue. Asia contains 61% of the world's population but only 36% of its fresh water supply. China is even worse off, with 21% of the world's population but only 7% share of the fresh water.

The money pump

Alex Prud'homme warns of the troubled fate of fresh water in his new book, "The Ripple Effect." The idea originated from a conversation with American chef Julia Child (his great-aunt) on the French obsession with bottled water and how that obsession was spreading to the U.S.. From that light conversation, Prud'homme uncovered the dark future outlined in his book.

The book boils the problem down to this simple fact: The Earth holds all the water it always has, "but the number of people using it, how they use it, and where they use it has dramatically changed." We abuse water. We take it for granted, pollute it and price it too cheaply. And we take too much of it from underground reservoirs too quickly.

The Ogallala is the third-largest aquifer in the world. It supplies nearly 30% of all of America's fresh water and the vast majority of the supply to grain-growing states like Kansas, Texas and Nebraska. But it's running out. At current consumption, the aquifer will be pumped dry in as little as 20 years.

Investing in water

For investors, the good news is that there is money to be made here. Scarcity creates value where there was none before. Speculators have already descended. T. Boone Pickens, a Texas oilman pushing natural gas as an alternative automotive fuel, has secured water rights to a large tract of the Ogallala and wants to sell the water to the highest bidder.

The need for more investment has many turning to the private sector and the profit motive. That carries risks. Things went very wrong in Bolivia back in 2000 during the Cochabamba Water Wars. After the system was privatized, rates jumped, and the poor could no longer afford life's most basic necessity. Riots and deaths followed, forcing the president to declare a "state of siege."

Whether water is provided by government entities or private enterprise, a few truths are evident. Water will become more expensive, because the resource isn't "free" and is getting less cheap over time. And money will have to be spent on new desalination plants, recycling facilities and on efficiency efforts. Companies that make the technology and equipment needed to filter, disinfect and test water supplies are likely to benefit.

As a result, Citigroup expects the $450 billion global water industry to grow at a steady 5% annual rate in the years to come. While this may seem modest, the growth is noncyclical (which means that it should grow regardless of the business cycle) yet nondefensive (it should accelerate as emerging-market economies develop). In the volatile economic environment we've had lately, these are valuable characteristics.

Image: PLL ©

The Citi Global Water Index, which includes stocks like private utility Aqua America, pump maker Pentair (PNR, news), and filtration outfit Pall (PLL, news), is up 126% over the past 10 years versus a 24% increase for the Standard & Poor's 500 Index ($INX). The five-year performance of 25% also beats the S&P 500's 16% rise. Pall and Pentair are the two most-attractive individual stocks in the sector, as they maintain clean uptrends out of the March 2009 bear market low. Pall looks particularly attractive at current levels as it emerges from a six-month consolidation pattern.

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For those looking at broad exposure to the sector, there are a number of water sector mutual funds and ETFs. Funds include the Calvert Global Water (CFWAX), the Allianz RCM Global Water (AWTAX) and the Kinetics Water Infrastructure (KWIAX). The most liquid ETF is the PowerShares Water Resources (PHO).

One nice thing about water is that, unlike gold, it isn't subject to the whims of popularity or the deftness of central bankers. It's essential for life. It's a constrained, mismanaged resource that's improperly priced. It's denser than oil and difficult to transport. And they sure aren't making any more of it.

At the time of publication, Anthony Mirhaydari did not own or control shares of any company or fund mentioned in this column.

Be sure to check out Anthony's new money management service, Mirhaydari Capital Management, and his investment newsletter, the Edge. A free, two-week trial subscription to the newsletter has been extended to MSN Money readers. Click here to sign up. Mirhaydari can be contacted at and followed on Twitter at @EdgeLetter. You can view his current stock picks here. Feel free to comment below.