Social Security Card © Scott Speakes Corbis

With nearly 10,000 people in the United States turning 65 every day for the next 20 or so years, it's not hard to imagine a new reality show called "Extreme Social Security Claiming Strategies and Tactics," especially in the wake of news that beneficiaries will be getting just a 1.7% increase in their benefit in 2013.

But what is real is this: There are a dozens of lesser known, often overlooked Social Security claiming strategies and tactics that are worth sticking in your back pocket, just in case there's an audition call.

And case in point No. 1 is what Bill Meyer refers to as "rat holes," the ages at which single retirees should never, ever, ever claim Social Security. Or at least not claim Social Security if they want to maximize the present value of their Social Security benefits.

Meyer, a co-author of "Social Security Strategies: How to Optimize Retirement Benefits," and the CEO of Social Security Solutions, an online consumer advice tool, says strategies for maximizing Social Security income are based on the pattern of reductions for those who apply for benefits before full retirement age (FRA) and on the retirement credits available for those who delay benefits.

"If the single retiree begins benefits at FRA, she (or he) receives his Primary Insurance Amount or (PIA)," Meyer wrote in a recent paper. "If she begins benefits before FRA then her benefits are decreased by 5/9% of PIA per month for the first 36 months plus 5/12% of PIA for each additional month. Delayed retirement credits are 2/3% per month for each month benefits are delayed from FRA to 70."

And, without going to deep into the weeds, that math causes what Meyer refers to as the "rat holes," those ages at which single retirees should not claim Social Security.

In essence, what happens is this: The total value of your stream of Social Security benefits -- the present value -- would be greater if you didn't claim at FRA or three years prior to FRA.

There are plenty more of these little-known and underused claiming strategies and tactics. Here's a look at some of them.

Benefits for minors and spouses

In a relatively rare instance when a worker claims Social Security and is married to someone who is taking care of a child under the age of 16 or taking care of a disabled child, that spouse can collect 50% of the benefits regardless of the spouse's age, said Lita Epstein, the author of "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Social Security & Medicare." And if the worker dies, the spouse's benefit, even if the spouse is younger than 62, would increase to 75% as long as he or she is still caring for a child under the age of 16, she said.

In addition, Epstein said, unmarried children under the age of 18 (or up to 19 if they are attending elementary or secondary school full time) are eligible for benefits if their parent is retired, disabled or deceased. "An eligible child can be a biological child, an adopted child or a stepchild," she said. "And, a dependent grandchild can also qualify."

To be fair, there is a limit to the total amount a family can receive on a worker's benefit, Epstein said. And the limit varies depending on individual circumstances, but is around 150% to 180% of a worker's Social Security benefit. "If the total for dependent family members is greater than the family limit, the amount each family member receives is reduced proportionately," Epstein said. "The worker's benefit is not affected by this adjustment."

Dennis Heywood, the owner of Social Security Solutions, gave this example: If the wage earner's age 66 benefit is $2,000 per month, the family maximum benefit would be about $3,400. The wife and children would receive half of the $2,000 up to $3,400 per month total for the family. He would get $2,000 while the wife and children would split the $1,400.

Along the same lines, Heywood said, another strategy is for grandparents who adopt a grandchild. "The grandchild is eligible for child's benefits when the adoption is final," Heywood said.

Overlooked survivor benefits

Since the earliest age of retirement is 62, most people believe this applies to survivors as well, according to Donna Clements, a manager with Social Security and Medicare Services at Mercer in Louisville, Ky. "A surviving spouse can receive benefits at age 60 -- assuming there are no eligible children," said Clements. "This is two years earlier than for retirement and can be a major financial windfall, particularly if the surviving spouse did not work."

Another overlooked benefit in the case of survivor benefits: A surviving-divorced spouse qualifies for a benefit if the marriage lasted at least 10 years. "The benefit is the same as the current surviving spouse but is not included in the family maximum, unless the benefit is based on caring for the worker's eligible child."

Overlooked criteria for disability benefits

To receive disability benefits, Clements said, a worker needs to have earned a minimum number of credits based on birth year, with some credits earned in recent years. In 2012, one credit is received for each $1,130 earned in covered Social Security employment, up to a maximum of four credits per year, she noted. "For example, if you retired at age 50 with a company pension and then became disabled seven years later; you would not be able to receive Social Security disability benefits because you have not earned enough recent credits," Clements said. "You would need 20 credits within the last 10 years and this person would only have 12 credits."

Another one: "A nonworking spouse that becomes disabled is not eligible for disability benefits based on their spouse's work record," said Clements. "Workers are eligible if they have earned a minimum number of credits based on their own earnings from Social Security covered employment."

Multiple spouses, 1 worker

Epstein said another quirk is that more than one spouse can collect on a worker's benefits. "A divorced spouse who was married for 10 years or more is entitled to collect on an ex-spouse's benefit," she said. Of course, there's a catch: In most cases, you cannot be remarried.

Epstein said the earliest a spouse can collect on his or her former spouse's work record is the age of 62. "If the ex-spouse applies for benefits before his or her full retirement age, the benefits will be permanently reduced," she said. An ex-spouse may also be eligible for widow or widower's benefits.

Bottom line: "Someone who has been married to more than one person for at least 10 years, and is now unmarried or a widow or widower, can collect survivor's benefits on the ex-spouse who has the highest-earning work record," Epstein said. "Each person can only get one check."

So if there are multiple marriages, the person must pick which work record on which he or she wants to collect. Obviously, the choice should be the work record that yields the largest check. If a person remarries before the age of 60, he or she can't collect on an ex-spouse's record unless that second marriage also ends in divorce or the death of the second spouse. The one exception: A divorced spouse who is collecting disability benefits can remarry as early as age 50 and still collect survivor's benefits.

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